Python plays a critical role in network programming. The standard library of Python has full provision for network protocols, encoding, and decoding of data and other networking concepts, and it is easier to write network programs in Python than that of C++. Python provides two levels of access to network services. At a low level, you can access the basic socket support in the underlying operating system, which allows you to implement clients and servers for both connection-oriented and connection-less protocols.
Here, we will learn about the essence of network programming concerning Python:
Introduction to Client-Server Networking
- A client/server network is a system where one or more computers called clients connect to a central computer named a server to share or use resources. Each client computer must use an operating system that allows it to be identified to participate in the network.
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that is primarily used for establishing low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet. It speeds up transmissions by enabling the transfer of data before an agreement is provided by the receiving party.
- TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation through which application programs can exchange data. TCP works with the Internet Protocol (IP), which defines how computers send packets of data to each other.
For your reference, here are all of the major socket methods that demand of you some sort of socket name as an argument:
- sendto(data, address)
- Top-level domain (TLD)
- Domain name
- Fully qualified domain name
- Host name
- Duplicate IP Addresses
- IP Address Exhaustion
- DNS Problems
- Single Workstation Unable to Connect to the Network
- Unable to Connect to Local File or Printer Shares
- Local Network is Unable to Connect to the internet
- Slow Internet Performance
- Server architecture is the foundational layout or model of a server, based on which a server is created and/or deployed. It defines how a server is designed, different components the server is created from, and the services that it provides.
- A message queue provides a lightweight buffer which temporarily stores messages, and endpoints that allow software components to connect to the queue in order to send and receive messages. The messages are usually small, and can be things like requests, replies, error messages, or just plain information.
- HTTP clientis a client that is able to send a request to and get a response from the server in HTTP REST client is a client that is designed to use a service from a server and this service is RESTful
- An HTTP server is software that understands URLs (web addresses) and HTTP (the protocol your browser uses to view webpages). An HTTP server can be accessed through the domain names of the websites it stores, and it delivers the content of these hosted websites to the end user’s device.
The World Wide Web
- The World Wide Web is a system for displaying text, graphics, and audio retrieved over… A hypertext document with its corresponding text and hyperlinks is written in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) and is assigned an online address called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
Building and Parsing E-Mail
- An email parser is a piece of software that allows you to extract data from incoming emails.
- SMTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is an application that is used to send, receive, and relay outgoing emails between senders and receivers. When an email is sent, it’s transferred over the internet from one server to another using SMTP. In simple terms, an SMTP email is just an email sent using the SMTP
Telnet and SSH
- TELNET and SSH both are Layer – 7 application layer protocols and both uses TCP( transmission control protocol ) at transport layer. Telnet transfers the data in simple plain text. On other hand SSH uses Encrypted format to send data and also uses a secure channel
- FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, and as the name suggests it’s a standard for transferring files over the Internet.
- RPC is a request–response protocol. An RPC is initiated by the client, which sends a request message to a known remote server to execute a specified procedure.